2B65B4075C66BE1B1DBD1236178169FA Метка: английский язык – Рефераты — Тары-Бары

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Метка: английский язык

Планета Земля – наш дом

Планета Земля – наш дом

Earth – is our home. Perhaps this is the only inhabited planet in the vast universe. Does it not deserve our love?
Is it not worthy of all our ingenuity, courage and generosity, which we are only capable of in our great desire to protect it from destruction, exhaustion and death?
Alas, but today we are surrounded by a lot of evidence of how a person acts not as a cautious land user, but as a self-confident landowner. People have forgotten that their cradle is in fact very small, and they don’t want to understand how fragile and unique is the life that pulsates on it.
Our planet is seriously ill, the troubles of future environmental disasters are knocking on the doors and windows of the house of humanity, and people have lost their ears: absorbed in pursuit of superprofits, in search of a piece of bread for lunch, cutting down forests, burning coal and fuel oil, poisoning the soil with a pesticide, killing a mother Earth, forgetting that the bills of fathers will have to pay the children.




Do we realize that over the past four centuries, more than 60 species of mammals and more than 100 species of birds have disappeared irrevocably in the world?
What lakes and inland seas, such as the Baltic, Black, Mediterranean, are under the threat of uncontrolled pollution and loss of marine fauna? While you are reading these lines, a hundred hectares of forest have been cut down on Earth, and the forest is the lungs of our planet. People were so carried away by the conquest of nature that they did not notice how there were less fish in the rivers and birds and animals in the forests.
The air in the cities has become suffocating and dirty due to the exhaust gases of cars, the smoke of factories and boiler houses. Drinking water has lost its freshness and purity, has become dangerous to use because of its saturation with acids, heavy metals, and other harmful substances. We are drowning in garbage — a hotbed of dirt and disease.
Of course, it is good that our civilization is developing, our life is becoming much improved, but it is worth remembering that all the resources of the planet need to be spent wisely and take care of the cleanliness of our planet.
Man cannot live outside the Earth. It covers us from the radiation of the Sun with its atmosphere and gives us oxygen, which is vital for our existence.
Man is very small compared to the planet and often forgets that he is part of the Earth itself. People arrange wars, deprive of life, sometimes even whole cities, dropping atomic bombs on them. After all, in this way, people harm not only the planets, but also themselves. They deprive themselves of the only thing that gives them life.
On Earth, as we should know, everything is interconnected. Every bird and every leaf. If a person somewhere has drained a lake or river, then in another part of the planet a flood will begin, and everything will flood with water. Earth is our common home and it is given to us not only for our own purposes, but also in order to learn something new, to study and maintain in it the balance of all living things.

Научно-технический прогресс в моём городе – Санкт-Петербург

Научно-технический прогресс в моём городе – Санкт-Петербург

Scientific and technological progress is the interconnected progressive development of science and technology, conditioned by the needs of material production, the growth and complexity of social needs

The result (effect) of STP can be economic (increasing the volume of production of goods and services, reducing their specific labor intensity, material intensity and energy intensity, achieving a structural effect from moving resources to more productive areas), social (creating new jobs for skilled labor, increasing free time and its more rational use, reducing the scope of heavy, harmful and nape (saving of non-reproducible natural resources, reduction of emissions to the environment, prevention and mitigation of the consequences of natural and man-made disasters), information (increasing the volume of scientific knowledge and their dissemination in society).

STP can also be interpreted as the process of accumulation and practical implementation of new scientific and technical knowledge, a holistic cyclical system «science-technology-production», encompassing several areas:

Fundamental theoretical research;

Applied research;

Developmental design;

Mastering of technical innovations;

Increasing the production of new equipment to the required volume, its use (operation) for a certain time;

Technical and economic, ecological and social aging of products, their constant replacement with new, more effective samples.

Basic directions STP in modern conditions: complex automation and robotization of production and life; informatization based on global informational networks and computer devices for the collection, processing, transmission and storage of new knowledge; development of new synthetic materials for production, construction, medicine, etc.; development of new, including renewable and non-carbon, sources of energy, ways of its transformation and transportation; development of waste-free and environmentally friendly technologies. In Russia, STP directions have been chosen as priority, allowing the use of the available scientific. reserve and get the greatest effect: energy saving and energy efficiency, nano and biotechnology, medical machinery and pharmaceuticals, informational technology and supercomputers, nuclear and space technique.

  1. http://buklib.net/books/26481/
  2. https://bigenc.ru/economics/text/2252238
  3. http://economic-definition.com/Technology/Nauchno_tehnicheskiy_progress_Scientific_and_technical_progress__eto.html
Праздники, обычаи, традиции России

Праздники, обычаи, традиции России

In the everyday life of the Russian people, pagan festivals and rituals were preserved for centuries, preserving the traditions of the ancient cults of fertility and veneration of ancestors. Some of them are known today. In the national agricultural calendar pagan festivals intricately intertwined with Christian.

The winter holiday of the Nativity of Christ merged with pagan saints. At Christmas people dress up in costumes, in animal skins and masks, wanting to deceive the evil spirits, which is believed to have at this time come to «the light» and are of particular strength. With noise and fun people threw away their evil spirits, so the holiday was cheerful, wild, with songs and fun.

Hymen-fortune-telling was to predict the future harvest and litter of cattle. But most of all girls were guessing at future marriage. There were dozens of different ways of guessing. For example, at night the girls «broke the snow». Slowly they went out the gate, turned in the direction from where the wind was blowing, and threw snow against it. If the snow fell quickly and with a loud sound, then that foreshadowed an early marriage with a young guy. If the snow fell dully and crookedly, then the bridegroom is deaf and old. Throwing snow on the tablecloth, the girls said: «To the field, the snow was white in the field. Bark, bark, little dog, get to know the betrothed.” Then the girls listened to where and how the dogs barked in a voice. Harshish barking — will be a narrowed old man, loud and sonorous — will be young. In which direction the barking is heard, the groom will appear with that.

At the same time, magical rituals were performed, which were supposed to ensure fertility. The boys went to their houses with mittens full of grain, and «sowed» it. At the same time, songs that glorified the hosts were performed. Children were given pies and sweets.

Known to this day, the carnival is very ancient, pagan. In ancient times, carnival was associated with the remembrance of ancestors: hence the custom of eating pancakes — funeral food. At the same time, carnival recalled the arrival of spring. Burning a straw effigy, personifying the winter, was accompanied by fun and contests.

In the spring, when nature awakens and we had to take care of the future harvest, the villages staged «Yarilin festivities.» At this time, it permitted drunkenness and reckless fun.

Under the influence of Christianity instead of Yarila began to honor St. Julius (George), who was also considered the patron of the harvest and fertility of livestock.

On the mermaid week, which was celebrated together with the Christian Trinity in the early summer, worshiped water and plants. Women woven wreaths and throwing them into the water. In the village brought the decorated birch tree, under which arranges entertainment.

The summer holiday of Ivan Kupala (Christmas of John the Baptist) was one of the most cheerful and rampant. The night before the Ivanov’s day boys and girls wove wreaths themselves, diluted forest fires, circle dances. Jumping through the fire, they seemed to sacrifice themselves to the gods. This is how the ancient chronicle wrote:

«On the eve of St. John the Baptist in the evening going to the common people, boys and girls, and weave themselves garlands of edible herbs and roots, kindle the fire, next to him put a green branch, and, hand in hand, lead dances around the fire, singing songs. And then they jump over the fire, Kupala himself is sacrificed himself. When is the night, then go to the river with a great crowing, wash with water.”

It was believed that in Ivanov’s day, nature reveals all its life-giving forces. At midnight blooms for a moment fern; the person who found the flower of the fern became omniscient: he could see the treasures hidden beneath the earth, understand the languages of animals and plants.

In August, celebrating the Perun (Ilyin) day. In ancient times it was a somber holiday, which did not sing cheerful songs, circle dances, and offered sacrifices to the terrible god. On this day people were expecting thunder and rain. According to popular belief, from this day the water in the rivers becomes colder, it is forbidden to swim. They said: «Ilya has come, he let the ice free».

When harvesting was over, the Russian peasants until recently remembered the god Veles and sacrificed the last ears of the harvest to him.

Many legends of Slavic antiquity were preserved in everyday signs connected with the house and the dead. After death, people close their eyes with copper heels: the ancient Slavs believed that a dead man with open eyes would look out for someone else to drag to the next world. Often you can hear a very old saying: «The dead are not spoken badly.» Why, in fact, you cannot speak ill of the dead? According to the views of the Slavs, the souls of the deceased were invisibly present at home and could even interfere in the affairs of the living. Hearing the bad things to themselves, they could get angry and take revenge on the one who told them, having caused illness on him or making some trouble.

Not accepted to greet or say goodbye on the threshold, because the power of housekeeper of peace and warmth of the family hearth, extends only to the door of the house, and the threshold ruled by alien forces that could interfere with friendly wishes and cause strife. Adopted at the housewarming first run over the threshold into a new apartment cat. Slavs believed cat animals dedicated to houses, often it even represented the owner of the house, and its behavior in the new home was tried, which will habitation.

Finally, many people today are hammering the horseshoe over the door of the house — «for luck», hardly knowing that they are passing the house under protection of Dazhbog the Sun and his horses, which according to the Slavs believed to bring luck to the house.

Such evidence can be preserved antiquity cited. In them — our inextricable link with the ancestors. From the depths of time, they continue to live with us and in a way to protect against evil and hostile forces. Slavic mythology, having entered the Russian epics and fairy tales, became an integral part of culture and nurtured the creativity of our people. It is important not to lose blood-inheritance. From the «traditions of the past deep» one can draw wisdom and spiritual strength.

 

 

http://licey.net/free/3-mify_narodov_mira/8-mify_narodov_evropy_i_ameriki/stages/170-92_mify_v_kulturnoi_tradicii_russkogo_naroda.html

My city: Saint-Petersburg (Мой город Санкт-Петербург)

My city: Saint-Petersburg (Мой город Санкт-Петербург)

«Before this beauty is all — vanity and smoke» — once sang A. Mironov, sailing in the frames of the famous film on the channels of Saint-Petersburg. These are lines from B. Akhmadullina’s poem.

Actually, this is a city; the number of works of art dedicated to it and stored in it has long passed into quality, turning our «Northern Venice» into a surprisingly strong magnetic pole of aesthetics, history, culture and science. Sights of Saint-Petersburg are known all over the world and attract tourists not only from Russia, but also from other countries.

«Pale thin, Euro-eyed passer-by», so obviously-not exactly like Mother Russia, nevertheless, the capital of our culture. And if «Paris is worthy of Mass», then St. Petersburg, in imperial terms, denies any compromises, as it engulfs every guest entirely, falling in love with himself to the point of insanity, leaving in his heart an aching feeling of unlimited ecstasy and worship for life.

«Before this beauty is all — vanity and smoke» — once sang A. Mironov, sailing in the frames of the famous film on the channels of Saint-Petersburg. These are lines from B. Akhmadullina’s poem.

Actually, this is a city; the number of works of art dedicated to it and stored in it has long passed into quality, turning our «Northern Venice» into a surprisingly strong magnetic pole of aesthetics, history, culture and science. Sights of Saint-Petersburg are known all over the world and attract tourists not only from Russia, but also from other countries.

«Pale thin, Euro-eyed passer-by», so obviously-not exactly like Mother Russia, nevertheless, the capital of our culture. And if «Paris is worthy of Mass», then St. Petersburg, in imperial terms, denies any compromises, as it engulfs every guest entirely, falling in love with himself to the point of insanity, leaving in his heart an aching feeling of unlimited ecstasy and worship for life.

What is there mass, this city is worthy of all life!

«Pan Leningrad, I fell in love without memory in your steel eyes» — so this love pours out in verse now, following the tradition following the great Pushkin, who exclaimed several centuries ago: «I love you, Peter’s creation! »

Having replaced for its historically short life (only 3 centuries) three names, becoming the cradle of three revolutions, the city really came out «from mud to riches». On a once impassable swamp palaces, comparable to the best European royal houses, grew. Next to the palaces were built Orthodox cathedrals — the custodians of the country and the original faith.

These palaces eventually turned into museums that have become close to the best museums in the world. And these museums and monuments have brought up their great heirs, worthy not only of St. Petersburg but also of world fame. Such, probably, and saw Peter I fate of the majestic city — the capital of the great state.

In it your cold genius is powerful,
Our Caesar Augustus, our Lycurgus!
And the echo of your aspirations
Saint-Petersburg still lives! — Exclaimed V. Bryusov.

This is the world harmony that is spread in this city. All the monuments and palaces of the Northern capital are the essence of the creation of human talent, a genius inspired by beauty and bold thought, according to the covenant of its creator called to glorify Mother Russia. And no, it seems, not a single place of Russian Venice, not sung by a poet, not captured by an artist, not cultivated by an architect or sculptor.

sankt_peterburg

But Petrograd is flooded with fires,
In it luxuriant luxury flourished,
In it the thought tirelessly stings,
In it, the poet is secretly intoxicated.

The majesty and beauty of Northern Palmyra is unique and inseparable from its main artery — the Neva. «Neva has long said verses» — it will not only result in the practical, but creative significance of this river for the city.

More than 30 km Neva turns in the city line, dressed in the granite of its regal-beautiful embankments, where 42 islands of its delta are connected to a single city by 300 bridges thrown across rivers and canals. You can also ride along the Neva to Peterhof — another unmatched pearl of Russian parade architecture and fine arts.

Not otherwise than «Neva Petrovna, near you — all the lions» refers to her Okudzhava, finding in her «eyes» not only the strength of inspiration, but also life.

The «Neva Petrovna» has stone and steel, cast-iron and pendant bridges, the uniqueness and beauty of which is best opened by a boat trip by boat or boat.

But, of course, the most magical ones are drawbridges, whose divorce can be observed even from the observation platform of Isaac, where this midnight service is kindly provided.

Diluting bridges, amazing fountains on the Neva itself in the central part of the city is a whole extravaganza of water, stone and light in motion, opening to an ecstatic look at the most poetic time of the white nights («and your third-century dress does not let me forget the third time»).

It is the white nights — the most beautiful and unforgettable time in Petersburg, long preferred by foreign and domestic tourists for romantic trips to this city.

On the eve of them they celebrate City Day, and in their midst the graduates of Saint-Petersburg schools celebrate their triumph — «Scarlet Sails».

Of course, Saint-Petersburg, despite its monumental granite-stone, has always changed. The attitude towards him, his understanding also changed. He experienced the times of the Decembrists, revolutions, red terror, totalitarian empire; there is also the «Black Dog Petersburg» of Shevchuk — the time of political restructuring and the collapse of the USSR.

Knowing the city through the eyes of the geniuses of its creators, one can not only enjoy the beauty of their creations, but also become familiar with the great wisdom of life itself and its inescapable harmony.

Therefore, even now this city, conceived as a fortress and blossoming as the capital of a huge empire, stately rises above the river by the real fortress of the national culture, escaping by beauty and faith, and keeping this beauty and faith for all of us.

What is there mass, this city is worthy of all life!

«Pan Leningrad, I fell in love without memory in your steel eyes» — so this love pours out in verse now, following the tradition following the great Pushkin, who exclaimed several centuries ago: «I love you, Peter’s creation! »

Having replaced for its historically short life (only 3 centuries) three names, becoming the cradle of three revolutions, the city really came out «from mud to riches». On a once impassable swamp palaces, comparable to the best European royal houses, grew. Next to the palaces were built Orthodox cathedrals — the custodians of the country and the original faith.

These palaces eventually turned into museums that have become close to the best museums in the world. And these museums and monuments have brought up their great heirs, worthy not only of St. Petersburg but also of world fame. Such, probably, and saw Peter I fate of the majestic city — the capital of the great state.

In it your cold genius is powerful,
Our Caesar Augustus, our Lycurgus!
And the echo of your aspirations
Saint-Petersburg still lives! — Exclaimed V. Bryusov.

This is the world harmony that is spread in this city. All the monuments and palaces of the Northern capital are the essence of the creation of human talent, a genius inspired by beauty and bold thought, according to the covenant of its creator called to glorify Mother Russia. And no, it seems, not a single place of Russian Venice, not sung by a poet, not captured by an artist, not cultivated by an architect or sculptor.

But Petrograd is flooded with fires,
In it luxuriant luxury flourished,
In it the thought tirelessly stings,
In it, the poet is secretly intoxicated.

The majesty and beauty of Northern Palmyra is unique and inseparable from its main artery — the Neva. «Neva has long said verses» — it will not only result in the practical, but creative significance of this river for the city.

More than 30 km Neva turns in the city line, dressed in the granite of its regal-beautiful embankments, where 42 islands of its delta are connected to a single city by 300 bridges thrown across rivers and canals. You can also ride along the Neva to Peterhof — another unmatched pearl of Russian parade architecture and fine arts.

Not otherwise than «Neva Petrovna, near you — all the lions» refers to her Okudzhava, finding in her «eyes» not only the strength of inspiration, but also life.

The «Neva Petrovna» has stone and steel, cast-iron and pendant bridges, the uniqueness and beauty of which is best opened by a boat trip by boat or boat.

But, of course, the most magical ones are drawbridges, whose divorce can be observed even from the observation platform of Isaac, where this midnight service is kindly provided.

Diluting bridges, amazing fountains on the Neva itself in the central part of the city is a whole extravaganza of water, stone and light in motion, opening to an ecstatic look at the most poetic time of the white nights («and your third-century dress does not let me forget the third time»).

It is the white nights — the most beautiful and unforgettable time in Petersburg, long preferred by foreign and domestic tourists for romantic trips to this city.

On the eve of them they celebrate City Day, and in their midst the graduates of Saint-Petersburg schools celebrate their triumph — «Scarlet Sails».

Of course, Saint-Petersburg, despite its monumental granite-stone, has always changed. The attitude towards him, his understanding also changed. He experienced the times of the Decembrists, revolutions, red terror, totalitarian empire; there is also the «Black Dog Petersburg» of Shevchuk — the time of political restructuring and the collapse of the USSR.

Knowing the city through the eyes of the geniuses of its creators, one can not only enjoy the beauty of their creations, but also become familiar with the great wisdom of life itself and its inescapable harmony.

Therefore, even now this city, conceived as a fortress and blossoming as the capital of a huge empire, stately rises above the river by the real fortress of the national culture, escaping by beauty and faith, and keeping this beauty and faith for all of us.