Scientific and technological progress is the interconnected progressive development of science and technology, conditioned by the needs of material production, the growth and complexity of social needs
The result (effect) of STP can be economic (increasing the volume of production of goods and services, reducing their specific labor intensity, material intensity and energy intensity, achieving a structural effect from moving resources to more productive areas), social (creating new jobs for skilled labor, increasing free time and its more rational use, reducing the scope of heavy, harmful and nape (saving of non-reproducible natural resources, reduction of emissions to the environment, prevention and mitigation of the consequences of natural and man-made disasters), information (increasing the volume of scientific knowledge and their dissemination in society).
STP can also be interpreted as the process of accumulation and practical implementation of new scientific and technical knowledge, a holistic cyclical system «science-technology-production», encompassing several areas:
Fundamental theoretical research;
Mastering of technical innovations;
Increasing the production of new equipment to the required volume, its use (operation) for a certain time;
Technical and economic, ecological and social aging of products, their constant replacement with new, more effective samples.
Basic directions STP in modern conditions: complex automation and robotization of production and life; informatization based on global informational networks and computer devices for the collection, processing, transmission and storage of new knowledge; development of new synthetic materials for production, construction, medicine, etc.; development of new, including renewable and non-carbon, sources of energy, ways of its transformation and transportation; development of waste-free and environmentally friendly technologies. In Russia, STP directions have been chosen as priority, allowing the use of the available scientific. reserve and get the greatest effect: energy saving and energy efficiency, nano and biotechnology, medical machinery and pharmaceuticals, informational technology and supercomputers, nuclear and space technique.